General Hussein Bune was the father of 4 sons, 3 brothers and 4 sisters; he was born in Bale Zone in 1922. In beginning 1962 Hussein Bune had been involved in the Oromo struggle to fight with Ethiopian oppressors after he considered himself why the Oromo people continued to be suffer under this the most backward and savage Ethiopian settler colonialism and he understood that the Oromo people were colonized by black Abyssinia and they treat the Oromo with utmost cruelty and he mentioned that the Oromo people historically are accorded prestige and have warrior history were to considered potential warriors as a result of culture of military readiness in the Gada system that flourished through the long history of foreign invasion, colonial occupation and the Oromo had domestic conflict of wars with the enemies in the past and the Oromo must reorganized to establish their army to defeat the colonial regime and he seen that the Oromo have gained very little in the way of political, social and economic progress and the Oromo were colonized.
In 1962 he begins the activity to organize the people to making resistance against the government and refuse to pay the taxes to the Ethiopian regime. Instead to pay the government taxes oppressors he was started to search how to buy a fire guns and in the period of time he found the sell guns in the countryside and he bought two Rifles so called (Albeeni) and he advice to one of the his son and his brothers to prepare themselves to fight with settlers, if the enemies will come down to the areas they must shoot in the head that may show them they will die and then they started for preparing how to fight with enemy and also exercising with the gun training, after while the Ethiopian regime was announced that Hussein Bune is to failed to obeying the law and labeled him narrow nationalism and the enemy of the Ethiopian people they will eliminate him from the people of Ethiopia and he should leave from the country of Ethiopia look for somewhere else to live otherwise he will find the penalty of to put him in prison for ever.
At the same time the Ethiopian settlers they claiming that the sum of money was missing which Hussein Bune were collected the government money from the people and he refuse to pay taxes to the Ethiopian government that is not acceptable for them. The enemy was making a threat that there were going to do something against him. Immediately Hussein Bune had been moving his family into the mountains and decided that he will make defense his people from the enemy and told to his brother and his sons to get prepare themselves to test the fire gun to the enemy, if in case the enemy will come to the area.
In mean time the Ethiopian settlers came down right away to arrest Hussein Bune and the two family member, his son Aliyi Hussein and his brother Ahmed Bune was opening the fire and killed the two enemies at the time they came to arrest Hussein Bune and the two enemies was died immediately after the shooting taking place. The people was shocked how this happened to the Ethiopian soldiers and the Ethiopian government announced that this person must be arrest and fine the consequences, the regime was demanded that the people in that area should handed over to the government the person who trying to do this bad activities that against Ethiopian government. The Ethiopian army were then concentrated on attacking the Oromo civilian in engage the sabotage actions in which were looting the property.
There were a serious for the civilian populations of that area were taking place in which the mass atrocities and genocide against the humanity, where intermittent violence threatens to boil over the civilians, the soldier start destroying the houses by burning their village, looting the property, and killing the innocent people, who were objected their rules even though they are the innocent and mounting punitive expeditions, the Ethiopian government also put pressure on an Oromo people in that area by incursions into the territory to investigate the conditions and making threats of a large scale invasion, they posed a serious military threat to the Oromo people in the area, the wars continually were infiltrating through the area and the situation was increased by widespread, but the situation were unsophisticated guerrilla tactic and the insurrection might spread through the different places some of the area that already exist, the treatment of Oromo civilian was markedly started to be worse than before in the case of were more brutalized, and Hussein Bune became impatient with slow progress that he made and argued the people to recall the struggle against the Ethiopian fascist regime and all the Oromo people should provide to support for the cause of Oromo people from the Abyssinian black colonizers .He is the most Oromo potential with passionate, dynamic, energetic, devoted leader through the will and he takes active participation in Oromo struggle that he never give up.
At the time he involved in the Oromo movement he made up the movement activities from his immediate family members for awareness of Oromo political movements that will rise up the revolutionary resistances against the Ethiopian regime. Immediately he was taking the stage of active leadership that was emphasis to making every possible effort to do the struggle against the Ethiopian settlers while he mentioned that he said our children have no access to the modern education and there is no for Oromo to build schools, roads, clinics, hospitals that the regime has been denied and other infrastructure that the Oromo people should be needed except they given their resources to the Habasha settlers, nothing is more discourage able than seeing the Ethiopian regime being Victimized the Oromo people in their hand the Ethiopian government restricted the Oromo people from any opportunity. Mr. Bune understood at beginning of the movement there will be returning for more conscious and more assault and he informed to the people anything will happened, the people they were very worried particularly the people of Hawattu clan was very much concern by the fact that the Hussein Bune step was very critical issue and very complicated movements may a cause the problem. Some people from his clan told him that they probably worried that might he be killed or become a victim from the Ethiopian government and also they were afraid that some of them might be arrested because of unfortunately that movement was an unusually it was against the Ethiopian government.
General Hussein Bune has been making remark that the perfect way of explaining the revolutionary time that occurred in the year of 1963, he studied of the mobilization of lower class peasant and farmers population into a tactical guerrilla army, which will stand up against the Ethiopia regime, the activity was aims to identify the Oromo people they have own country and they own resources. In the meantime the wars was broke away and shortly thereafter the people came into conflict with Ethiopian regime and he well understood of the need for an independent of Oromo people within the national revolutionary movement and he became a rebel group leader in the movement that it were make-up resistance against the Ethiopian regime and he is the one of well-known in the Oromo movement and he is the one of the prominent figure in the Oromo national movement, and one of the founding Bale uprising revolutionary war against the Abyssinian regime, he fought with distinction at the battle in the east, since he join the Oromo movement in early 1963.
Since he has been started struggle that raise up the movement against the Ethiopian oppressive regime during 1963 and 1978, with his other Oromo leaders like Haji Isaaq Daadhi,Aliyi Badhaaso,Johar Elemo,Tilmo Ali Rooba,Ismi Abbaa Washa,Haji Abdullahi Ganamo, Siraj H.Isaak, Mohamud Bune,Hassan Ciriqsa Bariso( Hassan Juure), Mohamed Hubbee Mohamed, Qasse Sh. Omar,Haji Abda Garado,Ibro shoonqe, Aliyi Jarso,Maamme Harqa Butte,Aliyi Daadhi, Sh.Mohamed Fato, Abbaa Xiiqo Tahiro,Haji Qaasim Tahiro, and Adam Jilo,Aliyi Omar Aga,Hussein badhane,kadir wako Shaaqe,Dubro wako.haji Usman Maamma,Haji gobana Yubo,Abdulla haji ali, ,Abdusabur Aliyi and so many others.
Under the civilian leadership and the government official groundwork groups
1.Awal Mohamed 2. Haji Adam Saaddo 3. General Taaddase Birru 4.Kolonel Alemu Qixxeesa 5.Mohamed Hussein 6..Awal Abda Garado 7.. Haji Tilmo Ali 8..Abba Jabala Tahiro 9.Haylemaryam Gammada 10.Maammu Muzamir, and others. In the beginning of his activities after he organized from one of his two brothers and his two sons to begin the dynamic wing that produced the revolutionary wars against the Ethiopian regime to raise up the political awareness of the Oromo people through the struggle. Hussein Bune had been dedicated to the Oromo National movement during this period and whole from his younger age and to his elderly age that disable him from his struggle to the final destination to the dream of Oromo freedom.
In 1968 he lost his own son Aliyi Hussein that was killed by the enemies in the fighting the area of Gololcha more 15 enemy soldiers was killed and 7 Oromo fighters including Aliyi Hussein Bune. General Hussein he had never scale back from his struggle against the regime and is one of the founder the Oromo National Liberation Struggle for Oromiyaa in mountain of Bale that he fought in the defense of every inch of the Oromo territory with astonishing bravery that has left him a priceless legacy of heroism in the movement. There is deeply saddened by the Ethiopian regime took action that increased the cold-blooded murderers of unaccounted the number of Oromo people that were killed ,these acts of ethnic cleansing that directed to Oromo people in the area and the general Hussein was mentioned that the Abyssinian colonialism will led to the Oromo something that deeply arguably, cultural genocide on the Oromo society and they cannot stop us from our freedom it will be turmoil into the country of Ethiopia until the settlers leave from the Oromo nation.
In early 1964 the situation was in turmoil into the so many areas between the Hussein Bune followers and the Ethiopian army, the liberation armed killed 56 enemy soldiers and 18 Oromo armed was killed in the battle of Malkaa Dhaare led by General Hussein Bune and battle of Harawa 74 enemy was killed and 28 Oromo rebellion armed was lost their life. There were insurrection between the Oromo movement army and 36 Ethiopian soldiers were killed and 13 Oromo liberation armed was lost their life in the battle of Burqaa Dhaare it’s about 45 km from beeltu the city of kurkurru,the armed resistance were wide spread into the area.,Saweena,beelto,Raayitu,Odaa,Jaarra,Gololcha,Dhadacha,bal’aa,Goorobubbee,Gaara,bullaalla,hadaa dhaare, baalle,Gaasara,dharro,Soofumar
Dirree sh.hussein and daaro labuu,gadab Asaasa and Boqoji.
The battle of Saweena, the bloodies war in 1970 Leading by General Hussein Bune. The Oromo national movement that uprising against the Ethiopian regime, in the 1963 to 1970 Oromo revolt in Bale was presented the most serious challenge to the Ethiopian government.
The aggressiveness of the Ethiopian empire against the Oromo people that always unprecedented in history, upon the foundation of our history the symbol and synthesis of the ideals, aspiration, history of the Oromo revolutions from the glorious days until the current generation . The Oromo people they must hold their guns to be free Oromia, there is no free lunch for their own land, the Oromo warriors bravery in combat was paramount with their enemies and they have histories of great warriors ,in which eventually led to their defeat the colonization of their land by the Abyssinians
In the past –period 1963- 1978 there were a new challenges against to the Ethiopian regime that increasingly began to take the form of the Oromo national struggles. Therefore since the Bale Oromo national movement has been began the championing the common struggle against the imperial Ethiopian regime, while the Oromo movements became the bearer of the national struggle. The period of 1963 to 1969 the Bale Oromo resistance against the regime was unbearable taxation served as for growth of Oromo nationalism. The Bale Oromo uprising against the Ethiopia that had further raised the spectra of the Oromo wide- armed movement that supported by the Somali government, in fact, the Bale uprising was a more sustains the Oromo struggle and had effect among the Oromo society in the Eastern part. The Ethiopian regime was as part of the new that the regime always response to the religious/ethnic in equality perpetuated under his imperial regime that mostly addressed the main historical grievance the varied ethnic groups particularly on the Oromo people. The long and bloody wars that uprising of the Oromo in 1963 led by General Wako Gutu and Hussein Bune with so many other Oromo leaders for those sacrificed their life in the cause of Oromo people and they achieved at least the eastern Oromo region autonomy for eight years.
Lately the war was widespread into the Harar, Borana, Sidamo and many more, after the liberation army they gave their precious lives in the defense of their country the cause of Oromo freedom. During this period 1963 to 1969 period, General Hussein Bune is one of the Oromo national movement leader that step up the Oromo struggle in Bale, in the phase of the Oromo peasant movement against the Ethiopian occupier that took various forms. There were numerous and widespread peasant uprisings in various parts of in eastern Oromiyaa region. In 1963 to 1969, the Oromo rebelled uprising against Haile Selassie’s colonial government, Mr. Bune seen that the Oromo subjugated at the hands of the Abyssinian minority and the regime they cannot protect themselves without get support the weapons from European countries and placed loyal retainers as landlord over the Oromo resources-rich and productive Oromia land.
These retainers were given the right to extract tribute to build the capacity of the Ethiopian regime and the Oromo regions were given to Abyssinian administrators, court, school and other social services administration and then the Abyssinian land lords and administrators had been killed by Oromo were then replaced by a loyal Amharic-speaking Cadre. Mr. Bune always has been increasing the resistance against the Ethiopian regime and spread the Oromo nationalism and he had been the strongest wise man since he join the Oromo liberation movement in Bale upraising and he is the top of leader that make so many efforts in the Oromo struggle and he dedicated to the last for his whole life in the name of his people.
In that effort Haile Selassie was unable to suppress the rebellion without to get assistance the European colonial powers. In 1965, the struggle was rose up in arms struggle that cause the enemy very much. The Ethiopian governments were called for assistance that the movement was upraising intensively against the Ethiopian regime. In 1968, once again the Bale and Eastern Oromiya rose up against the colonial government; hundreds were massacred and 100,000 livestock animals were killed.
In 1968, Oromos formed a confederation General Waqo Gutu and petitioned the British government for the establishment of an independent Oromo in the east. They also appealed to the League of Nations for membership that was rejected. In 1968 to 1969, the Bale Oromo National Struggle uprising against the colonial regime was put down with the help of the outside assistance with army and military experts Until about the end of 1968 and the beginning of 1969, the Oromo National struggle for Liberation they had been waged since their started the movement, however widespread was generally uncoordinated between the Oromo society also the Oromo was failed to form the united front liberation army that should be remain a strong position that rallied over against their common Abyssinian enemy and the segments of Oromo population they were adapted by changing their mode of political, economic and social life, the most Oromo in urban area were integrated into the Ethiopian Empire and feudal aristocracy were given the huge of Oromo land to plunder the peasantry, in such circumstances the Oromo were divided and they were disorganized at the level of political consciousness.
Many Oromo are mixed with the Amhara in particularly the Highlands area, eventually obtained a share in the Ethiopian government system and culturally adapted, in some cases the members of Oromo are become the loyalty of Ethiopian empire they do not believe the way of struggle and the situation was growth in towns some Oromo were changes the Oromo culture by learning Amharic and making achievement a place in the Ethiopia empire’s the political, social, and economic in order with the regime, some them are achieved significant political power in Amhara Kingdoms after adherence to Christianity that seemed to be motivated by nothing more than expediency.
In the Ethiopian principle all religion had equal status in relation to the Ethiopian state but through the country the large numbers of Oromo are Muslims those concentrations the areas do Bale, Hararghe, Wallo,Jimma, and the factors that might prevent them from exerting the political influence with their numbers in the Ethiopian empire. In that case the Oromo was started to losing their identity by adapting Habasha identity and they became part of Ethiopian empire. In the early 60′ when Somalia gained its independence in 1960, there was agitating in the Ogden (Western Somalia) for independence or separation from Ethiopia to join the Somali State. The Somali government set up the Western Somali Liberation Front (WSLF) in that year to make the fronts against the Ethiopian regime.
In the late 1963 to 1968 is the time of a growth of an Oromo national movement so called Bale Oromo peasant national movement, this was the first expressed through the traditional style shifta rebellion in Bale mountain. Hussein Bune is the one of the top leaders among the Oromo movement groups that involved in the way of resistance against the Ethiopian regime the imposition of the hated land tenure and taxation system notably in Eastern Oromiyaa. In early 1965 to 1968 the rebellion in Bale was outcome of the systematically brutal subjugation of an indigenous Oromo population by the ruling class of armed settlers. In between 1963 to 1965 armed rebellion started in the Highland of Bale Zone that fanned by both encouragement from the newly–independent Somali government and the heavy handed response to the Oromo rebellion in Bale and the fighting gradually intensified until 1969 that called the “Soowra Dhoombir” upraising movement which is a profound the political crisis that shaking up the Ethiopian government.
There were ground assaults and aerial bombardment both lowland Bale the Wabe zone and Dallo Buna the area of Madda Walabu, assuming that both area 100,000 thousands of population was effected and as well as 200,000 head of livestock was confiscating. The Ethiopian army was intervened against the Oromo people and the Oromo civilian living in the eastern Oromiya had been experiencing very serious abuses and looming humanitarian crisis, the situation became very critical. Early 1963 to 1978 the wars have been fought continually in the eastern Oromiyaa, there were lasted large scale was begin when the Somali army invaded the country in 1977, and including when the Ethiopian army defeated the invasion in the early 1978. In back of 1969 when the assassination of Somali President taking place, this period is the time of confusion in which several different groups struggled for power in Somalia before Said Barre took over the government power in October 21, 1969 and the new regime Seized the power led by Said Barre and the new Somali government established itself in Mogadishu that immediately announced they will support all Liberation movements for those who under the Ethiopian colonial rule.
At the same time the Oromo movement upraising again after they received the equipment and supplies from the Somali government. In 1970’s the Oromo student publication expressed well the feelings of subjugation, many educated Oromo aspired to a similar “Liberation” there was the most prominent attempt by the Oromo to organize legally and the Mecha Tulama self-help Association was founded back of 1964. Over 100 leading Oromo community leaders were arrested and brought to the Ethiopian court. The brutality of the regime has begun to fail that to meet the needs of the Oromo people during the drought which effected the all country of Ethiopia in the early 1970’s and as well as the inability of Ethiopian army to fight with rebellion was down, the Emperor Haile Selassie was in frustration with his regime and the most his important supporter were all arrested and some of executed eventually when the power of Amhara Feudal landlords was crumbled.
The Oromo organization was continued an underground movement or existence for several years and the associated have contact with rebellion in Bale to make armed resistance against Ethiopian regime. There was also a small insurrection in the highlands of Hararge. This was leading by Abdulkarim Ibrahim (Jaarra Abbaa Gada), and some Oromo politicians like Haji Hussein Sura and the former associate of the Oromo politician General Taddese Birru, Mammu Muzamir was executed in the early 1973 and they founded the organization that it’s called (Oromo Liberation Front) and they carried out small-scale guerrilla activities. The later Haji Hussein Sura change the name of this organization to the Ethiopian National Liberation Front (ENLF), and incorporated with General Wako Gutu and General Hussein Bune followers, but thereby also split his movement. In 1974 the ENLF controlled significant areas of the Highlands of Bale and Harerghe. The revolution of 1974 split the movement; many of the members of Dergue were themselves Oromo including General Tafari Banti, the chairman until his execution by Mengistu in1974. In 1974 many Oromo went into the armed opposition and they joined defectors from ENLF (Ethiopian National Liberation front) and the first Oromo Liberation front), and founded the second Oromo Liberation Front (OLF).
This was initially active in Highlands of Bale and Harar, and it had been the first meeting to publish a Oromo political organization. In 1976 the Somali government has been infiltrating the regular Somali troops into the Ethiopia for deliberate purpose of committing aggression against the Ethiopia and launched a full scale conventional. The Ethiopian armed launched major offensive operations in the Eastern front by attacking inside and outside Ethiopian border; the Ethiopian counter offensive operations were supported by the Cuban and Russian army who had been flown from Somalia into the Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian military offensive was the more specifically directed against the Oromo populations in the Eastern Oromo region, that means of survival, include poisoning ,bombing the water holes and gunning down the herds of cattle. The abuses had been connected to the movement operation in Oromiya region, Hararghe, Bale, Borana and Sidamo. The war left many Oromo displaced and caused a massive influx of the Oromo refugees in the region into the Somali border and the Ethiopia has been switch with Soviet Union to get support and the Somali government was disappointed that they have external pressure of political crisis with Ethiopia.
1976- 1979 The Oromo national movement forces had been achieved several victory and won 50 percent of Bale, Borana, and Sidamo. The Ethiopian army inflicted the heavy losses, the Oromo armed force destroy some of the Ethiopian army vehicle that led by Colonel Hussein Qaanqu that he was commanding the forces the two side, Bale and Sidamo with Hussein Bune Darara that they received a full army support from the Somali government.
After the Oromo movement army had captured many Oromo area, the Somali government had sent their military army into the Ogden and some of the Oromo area to mechanize the infantry brigade supported by artillery unit and had invaded the Ogden and the Oromo territory to take advantage of the situation by supporting a Oromo guerrilla campaign. The purpose of the Somali government is to creating greater Somalia, when it tried to capture the two strategic areas, Bale, Borana, Sidamo, and Harar. In 1978 General Rooble the Somali military commander from the highs level of the Somali Government was arrived in Saweena the Oromia Bale zone to capture the City of Ginner, Gobba, and Dire Dawa that to be control under their military foot, but in the Oromo side was not acceptable to them the Somali military for interfering the Oromo territory after they seen that the Somali government had retreating beyond the strategic area which is already the Oromo national forces had been established control over a significant portion of the Eastern Oromo region.
After that Hussein Bune had taking command to his force and give the order to General Rooble the Somali army general to leave from the Oromo area in 24-hours as Diplomat because of interfering the sovereignty of Oromo State and Somali military invade the Oromo region that being motivated by the Somali government for self-interest to the area that was very concern at time. Moreover, these self –interest will be contradictory in the Somali political nature and General Hussein Bune said this will harm the relationship between the Oromo people and Somali and he mentioned that no need of an absolute authority to control over Oromo people by the Somali government, Mr. Bune argued that the Oromo people are peace lovers and told to general Roble that the self-interest will create of absolute new regime over Oromo people. The general Roble the Somali military commander was corrected himself and went back to the Ogden region while they have strong military base in that region.
The general Roble was surprise and unexpected matter that will happened, he was disappointed that he receive a warning to leave from the Oromo area and he seen that losing support from Oromo national movement army even though they have political crisis with Ethiopia. Meanwhile the Soviet Union started to withdraw their support from the Somali government and decided to support the Ethiopian Marxist Leninist regime and make decision to pull out their total support and to abandon Somalia in favor of Ethiopia eventually turned the tide of battle in the Somali and Ethiopian border.
By the beginning of the Carter Administration, the faction of the Dergue, led by Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam, had won the internal struggle within the Dergue following a bloody shootout in year of 1977. This new dominant faction supported the view that to ensure Ethiopian integrity and their own political survival, the Dergue should find an ideologically compatible arms patron, and this was the Soviet Union. Personally, Mengistu thought that the human rights rhetoric of the United States, combined with the perception that the American administration would eventually undermine the Drogue regime in Addis-Ababa, contributed to his establishment of a military relationship with the U.S.S.R.
At that time, the pursuit of the human rights agenda to terminate military aid to Ethiopia seemed to Addis-Ababa, as only a pretext rather than the true basis for U.S. Policy in the region. In truth though, the factors attributed to the American decision was the decline of the base’s strategic importance, the struggle in Eritrea that threatened American personnel in Asmara, the lack of great economic interests in Ethiopia, and finally, Israel’s proven naval and military capability to protect its interests in Ethiopia
During the spring of 1977, the Carter administration discussed the possibility of forging closer ties with Somalia. One potential reason for this may be the Arab states’ policy toward to help Somalia, particularly by Saudi Arabia. The main Saudi goals at that time were to stabilize Numiere in Sudan and to eliminate pro-Russian influence in the Red Sea, fearing a Soviet expansion; Saudi Arabia promised extensive military and economic aid to Somalia to deter the Soviets. In fact, the U.S. was reluctant to foster relations with Somalia largely due to the Soviet presence in that country. The U.S. believed Somalia was not under threat, despite Soviet assistance to Ethiopia. The U.S. also feared increased that military supplies could lead to greater American involvement should border tensions between Ethiopia and Somalia erupt in a war. Finally, members of the National Security Council, including Paul Hence believed that, in the long term relationship with the Ethiopia, the United States should not break away from Ethiopia.
In late July 1977, Somali troops began to invade the Eastern Ethiopian Region and Ogden region, in early August, the border clashes between Somali and Ethiopian troops erupted into a full-scale war. During the same period, Secretary of State Cyrus Vance stated that the United States considered supplying military assistance to Somalia. Consequently, the Somali President, Said Barre, interpreted the intention of the United States to supply Somalia with defensive arms as a forthcoming attitude. besides that, the Somali invasion of Ogden rested on the collapse of Ethiopian relations with the United States, Ethiopian internal conflict with Eritrea, the support of Arab states, the fact that Moscow would remain neutral, and Said Barre personal opportunism. On the other hand, President Carter refused to support Somalia and instead he pushed for a peaceful resolution through the Organization for African Unity (OAU). Moreover, Carter insisted on his long-term policy towards Africa, which included African solutions for African problems.
However, the Carter administration policies underestimated the diplomatic pressure on Somalia in order to preempt Soviet and Cuban involvement, the willingness of the international community to resolve the conflict, and the OAU mediating efforts. Nevertheless, the Soviet Union decided to support Ethiopia largely due to the fact that The Ethiopian Government seemed more committed to Marxism Leninist ideology than did the Somalis who were more interested in Somali nationalism, Ethiopia strategic position, and its dependence upon Moscow, after their break up with the U.S. During Mengustu’s visit to Moscow in July 1988, the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev told him the arms deliveries would be substantially reduced and he argued that the peaceful resolve the war in Eritrea. But the Ethiopian government had very little though to beginning the peace negotiation with insurgents. By the beginning of 1989, the loss of armament had been reach so high and an alarming proportion
In February 1989 the Ethiopian army were suffered the major setback in war and lost many more weapons the Soviet Union are decided not to only to scale down arms deliveries to Ethiopia, but also to reduces the number of their military advisors. Those cutbacks the Ethiopian government started to peace talks with the insurgents and look elsewhere for the much needed arms. As the army continues to lose subsequent battle, the Ethiopian government held peace talks with the EPLF in September 1989 in Atlanta, Georgia. Jimmy Carter, the former American president, played role of mediator. Even though they turned out to be fruitless, and again the negotiations with EPLF were held in November 1989 in Nairobi Kenya, and in October 1990 and February 1990 and February 1991 in Washington D.C. and another peace talks held with the TPLF in Rome in November and December 1989 and March 1990 boring no fruit, mainly because as Bahru underlines, the insurgent were negotiating, from a position of strength while the government was doing so from a position of weakness.