The era of Menelik was a continuation of the invasion and expansion policy called “Hagermaqnat Werera” initiated by his predecessors. The most successful among them was his grandfather, Sahle Silasse. Menelik further followed the footsteps of his grandfather in grand scale. He exploited and implanted all advantages of the time (Scramble for Africa by European colonizers), the geopolitical position of the region in the history of human civilization as the gate to three continent and computing European colonial powers and firearm acquisitions to the warlords in the region. At this time, smallpieces of Turf around the red sea strip, coasts, and islands in both sides were occupied by three European colonizers Britain, France, and Italy as a point of depart to the African hinterlands in scrambling for the whole African continent. They all computed on Abyssinia for more political influence and sphere of domination by providing firearms and ammunitions to the three warlords rose in the region. From within Abyssinia proper, the death of two rival warlord leaders to Tewdros of Gonder and Yohanis of Tigray were jackpot as in lottery for Menelik who was considered as the underdog warlord in the region. “Thanks” to Alfred Ilg#s advised Menelik not to punish the war prisoners of his rivals, but to use the well-trained Gonderian armies of Tewodros and Tigreian armies ofYohanis to join the “Hagermaqnat Werera,” the elimination and expansion camapgin of Menelik. The Abyssinian barbaric Shiftas( Bandas) virtually knew nothing exceptbutchering each other throughout their history per se. Sahile Maryam; the black demon was grown up and lived a nomadic Zagol system as Alfred Ilg met him in Liche and inHal’kobar and in 1878.
The coming of the spin engineer Alfred Ilg, the mastermind and the architect behind the unification of the Abyssinian Shiftas that brought to the point of unity under one command control was decades of the tireless and limitless works and loyal serves of the spin engineer of railroad contractor designated as the minister of all affairs, and “Bitweded” by Menelik, Alfred Ilg. The spin engineer infused the authoritarianism of European styles with Zagol system of the Abyssinians. Once the aliens of the north, the Abyssinians;the offspring of divers and invades were united and controlled by one man; Menelik, analog to European colonizers the Holocaust began. Under the banner of “Hagermaqnat wererawoch ena awajochii” to eliminate the Autochthonous peoples of the horn of Africa from Finfinne, series of invasions, conquests, occupations, and settlement policy and mobilization campaigns of his hordes in all three directions, was proclaimed by Menelik.
The campaign of territorial expansion and aggrandizements conducted by Menelik’s Hordes primarily targeted the Oromo people and their land and continued to her neighbors to the west, south and east entire territories of Indigenous African people to the European colonial artificial demarcations around the horn of African. As a result of Alfred Ilg’s tireless and limitless services given to Menelik (the rubber black Leopold II of Abyssinia) for about three decades, the primitive, barbaric and predatory empire was known as with stolen name “Ethiopia,” was invented and artificial boundaries were demarcated in the horn of Africa. Since then, over eighty ethno-nationals have been incarcerated in this prison house. Today, some of them were exterminated and do not exist others evicted from their ancestral soil and kept in a reservoir and controlled by armed gangsters guards of the current tyrannic regime similar to the native of Australia or north Americas. Their territories were regarded as “terra nullius”and legitimized to be taken over by violence evicting or massacring them on their own ancestral soil.
Alfred Ilg came as a certified mechanical engineer to Abyssinia in 1878 with a contract of two years, but served in the establishment of the empire in all spheres, from secretary to “super minister” as he was called, and that was what meant an engineer in Menelik’s know-how, a man who can all. He left in 1906 almost about three decades of services of Sahile Maryam, “Menelik II,” leaving one of the most barbaric, primitive and predatory empire, the prison house on the planet to the very date.
The Key found its Lock
Alfred Ilg comes to Abyssinia with the premise to build a railroad, signed a contract for two years with an annual payment of five thousand francs with Frech company.The company was invented by France to dominate the political sphere of the horn of Africa, and the warlords rose in the region versus her classical rival and concurrent Britain mainly, and the underdog Italy as it was called at that period of time. In fact, the railroad issue was turned to the tail-end, and must wait about two decades from the day it was signed and the arrival of Alfred Ilg to be recalled back and to be signed by Menelik. Menelik has never been interested in railroad construction, but the reverse was true. His wife Tayitu, the brain of Menelik was the strongest opposer of the railroad construction. In order to understand and to answer the question why and how the conservative protestant Swiss was amalgamated with the 14th-century dependent Coptic Orthodox Sahle Maryam of Hal’kobari and their level of intimacy, It is essential to make a brief excursion in their profiles of childhood and adolescence of both Men.
Alfred Ilg had a difficult and challenging childhood as a son who actuality did not know his biological father. He was a son out-of-wedlock growing up in the conservative Swiss protestant community in his Canton. He was teased, ostracized by his peers in the gymnasium, moreover, the worst bang come, when his Stepfather, who cared for the whole family died, leaving his mother plus two stepsisters life in jeopardy, when Alfred desperately needed him. As a consequence as the only son in the family who can bring bread and butter, and must take care of his family for living and he must work hard.
It worthy to note that after years of civil wars Europe in general including Switzerland were found in great economic crises, and the population was immigrating via seas and oceans to seek a better life. Thus, Alfred Ilg was one of them except that his opportunity was Abyssinia. Abyssinia as it was in the past, she was found in the red lists for the foreigners. She was backward, primitive, and the terrain of barbaric warlordism since Ezana period in the horn of Africa. Alfred Ilg knew for granted, and took the risk and traveled to Sahle Maryam and met him in Hal’kobari deformed to “Ankober” in settler languages.
Sahle Maryam’s childhood was also equally challenging as Alfred Ilg. He was born out-of-wedlock. As the French traveler, Henry Audon was informed that Menelik’s mother was merely someone about the “Ilfinyi: i.e. hut made of wood as framework covered by mud and grass for roofing,” who happened to sleep with Haile Melekot. More precisely, Antonio Cecchi in his book Da zeila alla fornotiere del Caffa that was published in 1886 reported that Bezabish; his mother noticed one of her slave girl named Ijigayehu was pregnant and told to accept his paternity. Haile Melekot denied everything.That indicates, in fact, Haile Melekot raped the house slave. Otherwise, pregnancy does not come out of a vacuum, and there were no in vitro fertilization in Abyssinia not on those days, even today: He obviously lied; a deep-rooted cultural norm and behavior of Habeshas for which they were /are known in all spheres of life and nothing have changed. Nevertheless, what is conceived must come out at one time that is the law of nature. As a result, Ijigayehu gave birth to the son. Haile Malekot further refused to recognize his product. But, his mother Bezabish and his father Sahle Selassie intervened, and forced him to recognize. must marry her in order to legalize and legitimize the future kinship and inheritance. After Abyssinia arts of paternity tests were performed by “debtras and magics” and proofed to be Halie Melekots germ, the son was blessed and named Sahle Maryam.
Furthermore, similar to ILgs stepfather, Haile Melekot died as Sahle Maryam was eleven years old, a year later Tewodros occupied Hal’kober and Liche, and took him, his mother and others as war prisoners to Gondar. Sahle Maryam served as a page under Tewodros, until his flight to Halkober in 1865. Thus, Independent of the complexion of their skin, Alfred Ilg; the Ferenj “European” and Sahle Maryam, a pitch black skin with a funny nose and pock-marked face found each other. As an adage: The key got its lock. From then upon there was no return of working in concert to establish one of the barbarian Empire of Abyssinia led by both men’s. One can then imagine what type of psychological impact, scares did it left and the behavior of both men in their life and the way they acted and conducted versus the others. As one can read from Alfred Ilg’s writings to his families and friends in Switzerland considered Menelik as his father’s figure, and Menelik who cannot bear offspring, and was only ten years older than Alfred Ilg welcomed him and considered him “my son.” Ilg swore to serve and give all his knowledge, power to serve him. As folk’s adage: In the land of the blind, one-eyed man is a King. Menelik was a blind man without a stick or someone who leads the blind without Alfred Ilg.
The elimination campaign of Menelik’s hordes vs. the whole south
Once the predator bandas (Shiftas) called “soldiers”come all under one total command of Menelik and mobilized against the whole south, conservatively estimated to six hundred thousand Netanya’s; weapon carriers; trained killers composed of all Abyssinian. For the first time in the history of the barbarian Abyssinian Empire of Zagol system, the aliens of the north come under one command and banner, “thanks” to Alfred Ilg. One may gain a clearer insight of what the one prisoner spoke about the imagination the figure of Menelik Hordes: “Menelik’s soldiers were as many as the locusts.” In fact, it describes the magnitude of all Neftenyans that joined Menelik from all corners of Abyssinia proper to invade the south. About fifty-one millions of rifles and ammunitions were provided by only four European nations, such as France, Russia, Italy, and Britain. The figure does not include unofficial weapons smuggled by Alfred Ilg, like Vettereli Karabiners from Switzerland. Throughout his seven times travels to Swiss and back to Abyssinia. He brought with him fully packed ships of resources plundered, stolen, kidnapped, exploited from the newly occupied territories of the south by Menelik Hordes that was twenty-seven times as large and rich as Alfred Ilg’s homeland. In return to Abyssinia ships fully packed of firearms, ammunition and materials to build gunpowder, bullets, patrons’ explosives, dynamites, etc, an ingredient of European “civilizations mission” where ever their footholds, and their ship docks. A France citizen, Leon Chefneux, were also another very influential weapon dealer, organizer, and smuggler, especially from France. Leon Chefneux and had long years of friendship who played a great role in supporting Alfred Ilg in search and find of weapons and provisions, the right hand of Alfred Ilg`s business.
It worth’s to note that it was not only the troikas’ France, Britain and Italy who mainly colonized the horn of Africa provided firearms to boost up their sphere of influence to the regional warlords as it fits their interests, but also like Russia and Belgium. Leopold II, as BBC once described him “White King Red Rubber, Black death,” (the genocider of Congo Free State who chopped off hands of millions of Congolese; gruesome actssimilar to Menelik’s amputations of hands, legs, and breast of women). Leopold was also interested in Abyssinia from the beginning of his reignand conceived a plan of joining forces with Abyssinia and creating with Menelik a dual empire which would dominate Africa. Leopold interested to control the northern territories from “Belgium-Congo Free State” to the Nile Valley, and Menelik’s mutual interests to control the territories from the Nile Valley to the south and southwest, and the Red Sea in the north and northeast. Belgian firearms and ammunitions were poured in vast quantities to Abyssinia. Services of military personals and advisers who were paid an enormous salary by Abyssinians sent to Finfinne up to the era of Tefere Mekonnen.
At last but not least it is essential to understand that the war of Menelik against the non-Semites and raiding and capturing of the slaves from the newly conquered territories of the whole south and selling them as a commodity was two sides of the coin. The aliens of the north portrayed as “Christians” and Abyssinia proper served as the handlers of slaves.They sold, bartered kidnapped, and captured slaves singularly from thesouth and in return they all provided firearms to Menelik. in addition to the “soldiers” of the two Kasas of Tigray and Gonder. Summing up the magnitude of firearms of Menelik’s of Abyssinia it can be considered as the depots or warehouses of firearms of all European states productions and varsities that one cannot imagine. Thus, no wonder when a French citizen once was surprised in the varieties and mammoth of weapons that Menelik possessed in his stores as he visited him and made some face and in return as Menelik showed what he possessed. Slaves were the primary hard currency of Menelik. He had not yet money in a form printed paper or coins. Thus, hunting for slaves was the primary tasks of his hordes to purchase firearms. Raiding Cattle and all agricultural products grown in the conquered territories cultivated and harvested by the people were plundered and taken away by the parasitic Menelik Hordes as internal consumptions and as export to purchase firearms and ammunitions, the rest what was spoken and written “civilization missions, development, e.t.c,” were obvious an entry visa of smuggling weapons, exploitation of resources and slave entrepreneurship indeed.
Apropos “soldiers,” calling or considering Abyssian Hordes or vandals as soldiers or army per se were and still are a dual disgrace for the profession. First, Menelik Hordes lived on what the others grew for which the word hara (sweept , plundered harvests) was connoted for the Menelik’s vandals, an authentic doctrine of Abyssinia history indeed. The local people called; the armed men, beasts or predators or parasitic Hordes that lived in marauding and riding boots whatever edible they found on their way. They were the laziest who can not wash their own feet. Second, they were moral-less, ethic-less,slave of their leaders,who knew nothing else except shooting, looting, killing indiscriminately independent of age, gender, and burning houses and properties of the local residents.
What was called the teaching of the moral and ethical discipline of the gun carriers called “soldiers” in the history of the barbaric empire that failed to foster from generation to generations what the world is destining to witness to the present day Thus, the only difference between Menelik’s Hordes and the current gangsters TPLF/EPRDF armed men called “Agazi”is the barbarian armed men of today are paid with the stink-money called Birr by the leaders of the gangsters of the empire that predates on the people incarcerated in the empire as Rev. M. Russel described:
“Tigreians as a very ferocious, bloodthirsty corrupt and percifidous race for about two–and half centuries ago. The Tigreians and the Amhara from the north migrated as freebooters to the south since the establishment of the predatory Abyssinian Empire to the very date.”
The word “quasi-soldiers:gun-carriers ”were virtually equivalent to Neftenyas settlers from the north considered and still are considered as the worst enemy of the people incarcerated in the artificial boundaries of the empire. Indeed, If one digs deep in the bone marrow of the system and recruits of what was called “soldiers” in Abyssinia are mostly a collection of ostracized youths, vulgar, arrogant youths either who could not manage their life in proper and join the department of killing to live. The other groups belong to youths kidnapped from one region brought to another region to be indoctrinated and trained to kill. That is why in folk’s mouth they were called “Beenzini daaraa hinqabuu, Watadarif Pooliicinfira hinqabuu”generally means, as there was no ash out of Benzin, there will be no any friendship with soldiers and police.”
The dreadful annihilation campaign of Menelik’s Hordes against the unarmed peace-loving, generous people of the Oromos and the south people as A. K. Bulatovich who traveled with Menelik’s Infantry Hordes wrote:
The Freedom loving Oromos who did not recognize any authority other than the speed of their horses, the strength of their hands and the accuracy of their spears now goes through the school of obedience, the real face of monster; murder, crime, rape, slavery, robbery and burning to ash all what the face on their way from Finfinne to south to the lake Turkana, then called lake Rudolf by European colonizers at that period of time. During the conquest of the Abyssinians at this period. He further wrote that he destined to witness that more than half of the population of Oromos and all other ethno-nations inhabited in this region that was finally incorporated into this barbaric empire to the border of the European artificial colonial boundaries in the horn of Africa did also tested the bitter sides of Menelik’s Hordes. How many victims had the conquest of this land cost? It seemed to me brim-full of violence and injustice. Of course, a new phase in the history of peoples is always paid for with sacrifices. But world justice and individual justice are quite different from one another. Murder always remains murder for us, whatever goal it may accomplish, and it is especially immoral in relation to these peaceful, industrious people who never did harm to us, whose land we now take away by force, using superiority of our weapons.
Since then to the present, the only change one witness is the replacement of one the series tyrants who claimed to be Amhara that dominated the empire and ruled at gunpoint until 1991 was replaced by their rival brothers in their history;the Tigreian gangsters.
The spin engineer turned an equal shareholder of all resources of south with Menelik: Quid Pro Quo
Once, the empire was demarcated, with a dozen of treaties, where Alfred Ilg represented Menelik’s empire in each of them without exception since his arrival. A was chief of protocol, interpreter, planner, drafter, resolver, advocate, virtually overall when it comes to Abyssinia of Menelik. He was fluent in Speaking, Writing and Reading all three of the colonial languages around the horn of Africa plus Amharic, that boosted his influence in all sides in the so-called treaties with the European colonial powers and Menelik’s Abyssinia expansion and territorial disputes and establishment of the empire since his arrival in 1878 to serve him and his final depart in 1906.
During this period, he traveled back to Europe seven times by the same route and vehicles as he comes except his final trips to handle almost everything in concerns of Abyssinia of Menelik with the Europeans. His hut in Intootoo turned to the hubs of all European dealers, smugglers of weapon, spies, merchandises, e.t.c. Some of them call themselves explorer and others named “diplomats” officially indeed all are misnomer similar to the spin engineer Alfred Ilg. Their main task was nothing, but to pull or push Alfred Ilg to their own side and indirect influence onMenelik, whom no one can see, speak to and deal with Menelik without Alfred Ilg was virtually impossible. Alfred Ilg throughout his travel back to Switzerland with series of the project to influence more efficiently the Swiss government and to the extent to create a direct diplomatic relationship, to accept and support a number plans he designed to be recognized and executed by his government.
Menelik, in general, was a trademark, he was there just to put his self’s invented sign on the papers that looked like a soil scratched by chickens legs on the finalized paper and officialization. He can neither read nor write his own geez scripts and language let alone to deal with the Europeans. The major works all in all within the empire and abroad i.e. with European states and individuals dealers, weapon smugglers, traders e.t.c. were of the spin engineer Alfred Ilg. He also organized, and led various expeditions from Finfinne to the western demarcation of the conquered lands Benshangul and Gumuz neighboring colony of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, to the south to Boorana land that was scrambled into two: to Abyssinian and the British colony of east Africa; Kenya and Somalia borders incorporated to the empire, where the capricious exploitations began of the rich resources of the south began with parasitic invaders “Weraris” of Menelik Hordes, and finally brought back to the center, to Menelik and Alfred Ilg.
After the land of Macca Oromo was occupied and secured by settlers.He established gold, silver, mining company used explosives and dynamites in Wal’laga became land to exploit natural resources. Alfred became a shareholder from Clay pot to White gold, Coffee, Civet, Ivory, Tusk etc. The collection of boots, looted cultural antiquities, hand works, historical objects and symbols that count at least of four digits, found in Zurich museum taken out of the region to Switzerland by Alfred Ilg. One can write an encyclopedia if each and every article that was stolen was to be studied from with its content, accomplishments, purpose, symbols and meanings itself by the owners of the properties such as by the Oromos, and the whole people of the south to lake Turkana from where they were stolen and shipped to Switzerland, “the heaven of the depots of stolen, plundered, smuggled historical, cultural, symbolical, religious, artifacts and antiquities e.t.c.”. They were called and still it has not changed, a collection of objects from “under civilized, primitive, half-civilized.. tribes.” Such as Elisabeth Biasio, who wrote in her book titled: Majesty and Magnificence at the court of Menelik Alfred Ilgs Ethiopia around 1900 . The title of the book itself give an impression of a megalomania, a copy ofAbyssinia bloated propaganda rather than facts on the soil, an E.Ullendorff of her generation that was published of 2004 reads:
“Alfred Ilg’s material for museum’s collections: The arrangements of collections material leads over the primitive cattle-rearing tribes of North Africa (Galla, Somali etc.) to the highly developed Christian culture of Abyssinia.”
A “Semiticist” in training, E. Ullendorff; an abyssinaized fernj wrote: in his book,1965:
“The Gallas had little to contribute to the Semitized civilization of Ethiopia; they possessed no significant material or intellectual culture, and their social organization differed considerably from that of the population among whom they settled. They were not the only cause of the depressed state into which the country now sank, but they helped to prolong a situation from which even a physically and spiritually exhausted Ethiopia might otherwise have been able to recover far more quickly” adding an insult to injury.
One must bear in mind that there were and still are such an authors who invented racial prejudice, a societal cancer, xenophobia based on fictions and legends that led to the gruesome acts of slavery, colonialism, genocides, elimination, holocausts etc. wherever and whenever it took places based on nothing but hatred without no ifs, buts or ands. In fact, Ullendorffs civilized settler Semites, meant the Abyssinians were and still are exactly described as H. Blanc said:
“The Abyssinian, taken as a whole with the exception of the oppressed and hard-working peasants, there is nothing in them to praise or extol. Beggars infest the land; the priests are ignorant and bigoted; the soldiers, the course of the curse of the country. Abyssinians, I regret to say are cowardly, adepts, at low treachery, lazy, pretentious and pompous. Naturally drunkards and gluttons, they are only abstemious by necessity, and their festivals are but low and coarse orgies. They have no literature, no means of recreation. Their conversation is a revolting incoherent talk, partly blasphemous, partly lascivious, and when they favoured us their society, always ending in requests for favours. When we state that cleanliness is a shame, debauchery, no disgrace, robbery, treachery and murder glorious deeds.”
These were, and still are a crystallized fact that signifies Abyssinians to the very date. The Fact on the ground speaks that the properties ofOromos and their alikes robbed, plundered, raided, captured by Menelik hordes were shipped to Switzerland by Alfred Ilg for solid three decades and kept in his house hidden for decades, exhibited and finally given to Zurich museum to be paid for it. Here again, there is no if’s, and’s orbut’s. The crown of King Kaake and his Chair and thousands of those cultural objects cataloged under “uncivilized tribes “ in Zurich museum has no wings, cannot fly like Pfeilstroch to Zurich from Africa.
Antiquates are not sand, or stones that someone picks it up without violence and ship it to Europe. Indeed a looter, plunderer, who stole and took out and considered the properties of “uncivilized tribes,” is the under civilized by all measure that any healthy human mind can digest, not thehandicraftsmen who made King Kaakes crown, chair, horse and mule decorations (Mi’aa Farda), jewelers from gold and silver, head and armornaments, Sword (Sootala), Shields (Waanta), Spears (Eeboo), just to note some while the lists go on. Thus, here some of the most precious historical objects that were stolen were referred.
After Mootii (King) of Kaffa called Kaake, by his people, accepted Menelik’s order, lead by Welde Gyorgis’s Hordes and surrendered to save the life of his unarmed people, and W.Gyorgis Hordes, secured and controlled the territories, although the people plead in the name of “Menelik;the black demon”, the massacres, plundering, hunting for slaves and destroying what they found on their in earnest began. King Kaake was prisoned and his crown and the royal chair were stolen and given to Alfred to take out of the country to Switzerland exhibited in Zurich in 1954, over a halfcentury later.
During Menelik, kidnapping slaves were targeted on the southern people, newly incorporated terra that extends from Bensahgul-Gumuz in the west to the Red Sea coast in the east, and to the Turkana lake in the south. Once, the unarmed population was occupied by Menelik Hordes, secured and controlled the territories, the victims must pay tributes in slave, ivory and gold to Menelik. Menelik was known as level A slave entrepreneur and the biggest slave owner within African continent; one of the most criminal acts conducted in human history that nothing can be compared with. For the slaves captured, kidnapped, and raided from various ethno-nationals of occupied territories of the south, prices andarts of their serves were determined between the purchasers and slaveholders. Women’s as house slaves, concubine, given as presents; souvenirs or used as barters and sold as a commercial commodity. For instance, there were bigger demands for Oromo girls and Women because they were beautiful, sexy, and temperamental. Male slaves were used as domestic servants, agricultural laborers, Eunuch (one who survived the gruesome acts of castration) and as a commercial commodity. A recently published book titled: From Slavery to Freedom: the Oromo Slave Children of Lovedale Prosopography and Profile: by Professor Sandra Rowoldt Shells Ph.D. years of research on the forgotten victims of slavery during Menelik’s elimination campaign that unveils the gruesome acts of slavery, its lifelong psychological and physical impacts on the survived victims. We shall be profoundly appreciated for her interest, dedication, and wisdom by unearthing the neglected subjects of tragic acts of Slavery in human history more precisely, the Oromos. It worth’s to note that Professor Shells dissertation concentrated on the fact of the Oromo’s landed Lovedale’s, South Africa, and the gruesome acts of the journey of the survived victims of slavery, the fate of slaves as a whole in human history were fundamentally similar independent of time, place and culprits. Thus, slaves kidnapped, hunted from the conquered terra during the gruesome acts of Menelik’s Hordes “Hagermaqnat invasion” and expansion from Benshagul, Gumuz in the far west border, the red sea coast in the east, and to the Turkana lake in the south where ever their footholds. Thus, it is a must read book by all Ethno-nationals incarcerated in the empire with identical fate in the history of the region independent of size and demographical size in the horn of Africa and beyond. One who does not know his past, cannot his present, and the past have never been past, even not the present it goes beyond our time.
Menelik Hordes, the alien of the north “Netanya’s” remained in fortified garrisons what was called “Ketema” in ever corners of the occupied and evicted territories of the south and finally brought their families, and relatives, the freebooter Amharas, and Tigres. The word “Ketema” inNeftanya language means: mission accomplished and settled. In other words, it was a description of the results of “Hagermaqnat Werera Awajs” of Menelik Hordes, invasion, eviction occupation proclamations, territorial expansion, and aggrandization. As a reminder, Alfred Ilg was the first settler who built his house on the top of Tuulama high land, Intootoo in Finfine. As a result of tireless mobilization and facilitations of the Abyssinia; the aliens of the north by the regimes who ruled the empire under gunpoint since its establishment, most profoundly from Menelik to the current Tigrean tyrants we will observe their demographical dominance of the settlers by evicting the indigenous people in most larger “Ketemas” in the predatory empire of contemporary “Ethiopia.”
The issue of railway concession to be signed by Menelik, black demon Telegraph, Post, “sign of civilization” was not yet an issue, and must wait for four years from know where this portion of article winds up and will be explored in the following part and close with, by this quote from one of the anti-colonial hero of African son, who was killed and burned with acid simply by saying Congo belongs to Congolese.
History will one day have its say, but it will not be the history that is taught in Brussels, Paris, Washington or in the United Nations…. Africa will write her own history, and to the north and south of the Sahara, it will be a glorious and dignified history….” Patrice Lumumba, first prime minister of theindependent Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1961.
Note: The graphic adapted from Elisabeth Elisabeth Biasio indicates the invasion, expansion, aggrandizement policy of Menelik after settling in Finfinne, in a house called “Menelik Giibii” built by slaves labor, designed and mentored by Alfred Ilg. Furthermore, it describes the continuation of the policy from regimes to regimes who come to power in the empire by all means possible to the very date.